• 2003 - Waste

    This project was funded by WRAP. The client had developed a process for manufacturing a water treatment media from recycled glass. However, for it to be used for drinking water supplies, the regulator required stringent tests. Andy assisted a colleague, who was addressing wider ranging issues with the project, by developing a method of assessing the potential risks of using the new treatment media. Working with the client, this was used to demonstrate that, whilst risks did exist, they were comparable or less than those associated with more traditional media (e.g. sand). Given that the new media had been shown to have very good performance in treating water, the risk assessment was an important element in making the case to the regulator.

    The client was planning to change from a 8-hour to 12-hour shift pattern. The main driver for this was that they were having problems arranging cover for holidays, sickness etc. This had resulted in frequent working of double shifts (i.e. 16 hours). Andy made extensive use of fatigue research documented in HSE Contract Research Report 254/1999, and the working time directive and UK regulations. Communication was key element in this project and research about shift handover described in HSE offshore report OTO 96003 was used.
  • 2006 - Gas Storage

    The client was completing the definition phase for a project to develop a gas storage facility using salt caverns. An ARM study was required to demonstrate the proposed plant arrangements would be suitable for the planned operating and commercial activity. Andy led the project with other consultants carrying out the modelling and analysis. He was required to communicate closely with the client to ensure the data used was appropriate and the results were appropriate to their needs. Andy was able to use his knowledge of the gas industry to interpret the modelling results and developing practical recommendations for achieving a reliable plant. He was also able to comment on human and managerial factors that would ultimately affect reliability once the plant was operational.

  • 2006 - Steel manufacture

    The client had experienced an incident that should have been predicted and prevented as a result of risk assessment carried out for COMAH. Andy was asked to investigate how the risk assessment process had failed. From talking to key personnel and reviewing related documents, Andy was able to develop a root cause 'why tree.' From this he recognised that the incident had been predicted but the mindset of people at the site meant they focused on only part of the problem and hence did not develop a full solution. This was further affected because assessments had been carried out at a generic level, and specific areas with higher risks had not been identified . Also, changes had occurred in the way areas of the site were being used and because the management of change processes had not worked as intended, there had been no prompt to revisit the original risk assessments. Andy was able to make recommendations about how to improve the underlying processes and specific applications of risk assessment and management of change. The objective being to not just prevent the same incident occurring, but to have a wide ranging impact on how risks are managed.

  • 2004 - Liquefied Natural Gas

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. Following on from the Quantified Risk Assessment of the plant, which Andy was involved in, this project involved assessing the likely consequences of fire and explosion events that may occur. It was necessary to be able to demonstrate that the plant design would mean that it would withstand any of these events that had a frequency above a specified threshold. These were known as the 'Design Accident Loads.' The analysis was used to confirm that appropriate design standards had been used, and that the provision of passive and active fire protection, and emergency shutdown systems were adequate. Andy developed the method for carrying out this analysis, and wrote the report.

  • 2010 - Gas

    The client had recently experienced a significant incident, that came following a number of operational problems.  Prior to restarting the affected unit a fitness for service review was carried out to ensure that all known problems had been recognised and rectified.  Andy was asked to lead the human factors element of the review, which involved a review of incidents, task and error analysis of critical tasks and a formal HAZID assessment.  The result was a thorough documentation of the known issues and risks associated with the unit based on past experience, and a list of actions and recommendations.  The main finding was that the vast majority of issues were related to the unit's design, and relatively few were related to the softer human factors issues.

  • 2008 - Electrical system at an oil company

    The client's operation involved a number of remote, onshore sites that were supplied by 33kV electrical supplies. In the past any work on the electrical supply lines required them to be isolated. In order to minimise production interruption the client was considering carrying out some activities with the electrical systems live. Andy was asked to evaluate the risks of human error of live line working and to advise whether it should be pursued by the client. He visited the preferred contractor for the work, observed them in practice and held lengthy discussions with their technical experts. He completed task analyses of the tasks for both live and dead line working, and used these to identify the potential human errors. His conclusion was that live line working has been accepted in many countries as a safe way of working and with good management and control there was no reason why the client should not adopt it. In fact it could be safer than dead working implemented correctly. Andy provided the client with the information they needed to inform their decisions and a list of recommendations that they would need to implement to carry out live line working safely.


  • 2005 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import, storage and regassification facility being built in Spain. Andy's role was to review the engineering design in order to identify credible loss of containment events and to evaluate the potential consequences. This involved him working with the design team, examining piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and reviewing plant and equipment specifications. His analysis was used to determine the accidental loads that the plant had to be able to withstand so that escalation did not occur. It needed to be presented in a way that the designers could understand and their client would accept.

  • 2003 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. The project was a full Quantified Risk Assessment of the design to identify any points of weakness and demonstrate that personal and societal risks were acceptable to the Operator and Norwegian regulator. Andy's role in the project was to calculate the predicted frequency of loss of containment, fire and explosion events. For pipework and fittings, a formula derived from the HSE offshore hydrocarbon release data, modified for LNG use, was used to determine leak probabilities. For other items (e.g. ship loading arms, tank foundation heaters) Andy used industry databases and developed event and fault trees for the analysis. The results from the QRA were used to modify the design in a number of key areas to reduce risks.

    The client was planning to change from a 8-hour to 12-hour shift pattern. The main driver for this was that they were having problems arranging cover for holidays, sickness etc. This had resulted in frequent working of double shifts (i.e. 16 hours). Andy made extensive use of fatigue research documented in HSE Contract Research Report 254/1999, and the working time directive and UK regulations. Communication was key element in this project and research about shift handover described in HSE offshore report OTO 96003 was used.